First of all, this is the objective need to provide space for free mobility of staff with higher education, which needs both comparability of qualifications at European and global level, and a measure of education to support its unification.
The challenge was taken up by European universities. Following the Sorbonne Declaration of 25 May 1998, which emphasized the central role of universities in the creation of the European Higher Education Area, the Bologna Declaration of 19 June 1999 defined its structure. An educational system based on two main cycles was adopted – a bachelor’s degree (lasting at least three years) and a master’s degree. The second cycle can be followed only after successful completion of the first, which leads to a master’s and / or doctoral degree.
Another important prerequisite of the EuroPsy educational structure, defined by the Bologna Declaration, is the introduction of the ECTS credit system (European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System). These are the credits for training, measured in hours of classroom employment, independent work, research, internships, etc. The unit of measure is indicated – 1 credit is equal to 25-30 hours of study employment. The credit system provides an indirect assessment of both the amount of acquired knowledge and skills and the comparability of individual curricula.
In order to take into account some national specifics and traditions in higher education and to avoid their opposition, the idea was further developed by the Bologna Working Group (Copenhagen, 2005) as a Qualifications Framework in the European Higher Education Area. It gave some freedom to educational systems in terms of the duration of bachelor’s and master’s degrees, while maintaining their total duration and content. Educational credit was defined within 25-30 hours.
the Bologna Process, Copenhagen Declaration and European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System are part of the Tuning Projects that aim to develop qualifications and competences at European level. University curricula and Supervised Practice across EFPA’s member countries tend to adopt these principles and work to build their educational sistems and curricula in accordance with them.